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How the Brain Creates Consciousness: Multiple Perspectives

Ever changing and constructed consciousness

Consciousness has long been a topic of fascination and debate among philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists. The nature of consciousness, the so-called "hard problem" as coined by philosopher David Chalmers, has perplexed thinkers for centuries. Two influential perspectives that shed light on this enigmatic phenomenon are those of Daniel Dennett and the theory of constructed emotion. In this blog post, we will explore how Dennett's ideas and the theory of constructed emotion converge to offer a unique perspective on consciousness.

Daniel Dennett's Perspective on Consciousness

Daniel Dennett, a prominent philosopher and cognitive scientist, is known for his influential theories on consciousness and the mind and synthesized in his book, "Consciousness Explained". One of his most significant contributions is the idea that consciousness is an illusion. Dennett argues that there is no central "Cartesian theater" in the brain where consciousness resides, as traditionally believed. Instead, he proposes that consciousness is a product of the brain's various cognitive processes, and it arises from the interaction of these processes. Dennett's stance on consciousness can be summarized through the following key points:

  1. Multiple Drafts Model: Dennett introduces the "multiple drafts" model, which suggests that the brain constantly generates and updates multiple drafts of experiences and thoughts. There is no single, authoritative narrative, but rather a dynamic and ever-changing stream of conscious experience.

  2. Heterophenomenology: Dennett promotes a method he calls "heterophenomenology," which involves studying consciousness from a third-person perspective, relying on the reports and descriptions of individuals about their own experiences. He emphasizes that these reports may not always be accurate but are nonetheless valuable for understanding consciousness.

  3. Consciousness as a User Interface: Dennett likens consciousness to a user interface, a way for the brain to access and integrate information from various cognitive processes. It serves as a tool for decision-making, communication, and control, rather than being the locus of consciousness itself.

The Theory of Constructed Emotion

The Theory of Constructed Emotion, pioneered by Lisa Feldman Barrett and others, challenges traditional views of emotions as fixed and universally recognizable states. Instead, as detailed in her book "How Emotions Are Made: The Secret Life of the Brain" this theory posits that emotions are dynamic, context-dependent constructs that the brain assembles based on a range of sensory and cognitive inputs. Key concepts within the Theory of Constructed Emotion include:

  1. Emotion Construction: Emotions are not pre-existing categories but are constructed by the brain based on a combination of sensory inputs, prior experiences, and cultural influences. Different individuals may construct the same emotion differently in response to the same stimuli.

  2. Conceptual Act Theory: Emotions are seen as acts of categorization, where the brain interprets sensory information and labels it as a specific emotion. These labels are influenced by cultural and personal factors, resulting in a wide range of emotional experiences.

Anil Seth's "Being You" and His Perspectives on Consciousness

In his groundbreaking book, "Being You", Anil Seth presents a revolutionary perspective on the nature of consciousness, striding boldly into new intellectual territories. Seth, a leading cognitive and computational neuroscientist, proposes the concept of "controlled hallucination". In his view, what we perceive as reality is nothing more than our brain's best guess of the sensory information it receives. Our experiences, according to Seth, are a delicate interplay between prediction and sensation.

Seth's ideas pivot away from the traditional notion of consciousness as a passive experience. He suggests that our brains are active constructors of our conscious reality, constantly predicting what comes next based on past experiences. This results in our unique, individual perception of the world – a concept he refers to as "phenomenal selfhood".

Furthermore, Seth explores the idea of "interoceptive inference," where our internal physiological states influence our emotions and perceptions. This connects the mind-body relationship and emphasizes the role of the body in sculpting our conscious experience.

Seth delves deeper into the realm of consciousness by leveraging the concept of "interoceptive inference" to elucidate our sense of self. He argues that our self-perception is a construct of the brain's interpretation of internal bodily signals or 'interoceptive' inputs. Seth suggests that the brain uses these inputs to generate predictive models of our internal states.

In essence, our brain continuously makes inferences about what's happening inside our body based on prior experiences and uses this information to dictate our feelings and perceptions. Seth posits that these inferences don't just shape our emotional experiences but also contribute to our sense of 'being'. The fluctuating bodily states, as interpreted by the brain, form the basis of our feeling of being a distinct, continuous self.

So, our sense of self, according to Seth, is not an immutable, constant entity. Instead, it is a dynamic, ever-changing perception deeply rooted in our physiological existence. This visionary perspective breaks the boundaries of traditional notions and paves the way for a more comprehensive understanding of human consciousness.

Converging Perspectives: Daniel Dennett, Lisa Feldman Barrett, and Anil Seth

In exploring Daniel Dennett's perspective on consciousness and Lisa Feldman Barrett's Theory of Constructed Emotion, as well as Anil Seth's insights, fascinating connections emerge. These viewpoints collectively challenge the notion of a fixed and fundamental aspect of the mind.

  1. Dynamic Construction: Just as the theory of constructed emotion proposes that emotions are not static entities, but rather dynamically constructed by the brain, Dennett argues that consciousness is not a stable entity, but rather an ever-changing result of cognitive processes. Seth further adds that consciousness is a continuous and dynamic interplay of predictions and perceptions.

  2. Contextual Nature: All three perspectives emphasize the contextual and situational nature of mental phenomena. Emotions, consciousness, and perceptual experiences are shaped by various factors, including cultural, individual, and environmental contexts.

  3. Illusory Nature: Dennett's idea of consciousness as an illusion aligns with the notion that emotions are constructed rather than being fundamental, objective states. Seth expands on this by suggesting that our conscious experience of the world is a controlled hallucination, where our brain actively generates our perception of reality.

By considering the convergence of these perspectives, we gain a fresh understanding of the enigmatic nature of consciousness. Rather than perceiving consciousness as a static and foundational aspect of the mind, these insights invite us to recognize it as a dynamic, context-dependent phenomenon. The ongoing debate about consciousness challenges us to question our assumptions and explore new ways to comprehend the intricate workings of the mind and our experience of the world.

Expanding upon this intriguing notion, it is fascinating to observe that over 2500 years ago, Siddhartha Gautama, widely known as The Buddha, also reached remarkably similar conclusions about the constructed, context-dependent and ever-changing nature of consciousness.

Buddhism and the Nature of Consciousness

Buddhism, an ancient spiritual tradition founded in India over two millennia ago, has always placed a strong emphasis on understanding the nature of consciousness. Central to Buddhist philosophy is the idea that our ordinary, everyday consciousness is inherently flawed and that enlightenment or awakening (nirvana) is the realization of a higher, more profound form of consciousness. Several key points from Buddhism's teachings on consciousness resonate with the converging perspectives of Dennett and the theory of constructed emotion:

  1. Impermanence (Anicca): Buddhism teaches that all phenomena, including consciousness, are impermanent and in constant flux. Just as Dennett views consciousness as ever-changing and constructed in the moment, Buddhists see consciousness as a dynamic and fleeting process.

  2. Non-Self (Anatta): Buddhism emphasizes the concept of "anatta" or non-self, suggesting that there is no unchanging, permanent self or soul within us. Similarly, Dennett and Seth's view of consciousness as an illusion aligns with the idea that there is no enduring self that possesses consciousness.

  3. Dependent Origination (Paticca Samuppada): Buddhism posits that all phenomena, including consciousness, arise dependently on other factors. This concept is akin to the theory of constructed emotion, where emotions are constructed based on various inputs and contexts. Both perspectives recognize the interconnectedness of mental phenomena.

Buddhism and Emotion

Buddhism offers profound insights into the nature of emotion, which resonate with the theory of constructed emotion:

  1. Emotions as Constructs: Buddhism views emotions as mental constructs influenced by our perceptions, attachments, and desires. Emotions are not fixed or intrinsic but are shaped by our interactions with the world.

  2. Mindfulness and Emotional Regulation: Mindfulness meditation, a central practice in Buddhism, encourages individuals to observe their thoughts and emotions without judgment. This practice aligns with the theory of constructed emotion by highlighting the importance of understanding how emotions arise in the mind.

  3. Liberation from Suffering: Buddhism's ultimate goal is the cessation of suffering. This aligns with the idea in constructed emotion theory that recognizing the constructed nature of emotions can lead to greater emotional regulation and well-being.


The convergence of Daniel Dennett's, Lisa Feldman Barrett's, Anil Seth's, and Buddha's perspectives on consciousness and emotion reveals a remarkable congruence in their views on the dynamic and context-dependent nature of mental phenomena. Incorporating insights from Buddhism, with its deep understanding of consciousness and emotion, alongside the scientific and philosophical inquiries of Dennett, Feldman, and Seth, we gain a comprehensive framework for contemplating the impermanence of consciousness and the self, the constructed nature of emotions, and the interconnectedness of all mental phenomena. Through embracing these insights, we can deepen our understanding of the mind, foster self-awareness, nurture emotional well-being, and embark on a path of spiritual awakening, bridging modern science and ancient wisdom.

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